This is a case study of a municipal orphanage in Phnom Penh, Cambodia called Rose Center No. 4.A large number of children in Cambodia became orphaned after the prolonged conflicts in the 1970s, especially at the end of the Pol Pot regime in 1979. However, it has been a substantial period of time since then, and there are still many children in orphanages today. Moreover, a large percentage of children in orphanages have living parents. This unique phenomenon comes from difficult living conditions of vulnerable groups in Cambodia. This study focuses on this phenomenon and attempts to explore what factors made these children come to orphanages, and how parents of these children perceive the function of orphanages. By exploring family backgrounds of children in orphanages and reasons that made the children come to the orphanages, this study describes difficult conditions of the vulnerable people in current Cambodia, and then looks at what the role of orphanages mean to these families. This study consists of two phases: survey and field interviews. The survey was taken at three public orphanages in Phnom Penh. The field interviews were conducted with parents of children of Rose Center No.4, a municipal orphanage in Phnom Penh. This study discloses one significant aspect of child welfare in Cambodia and contributes to understanding current issues surrounding Cambodian orphans. The result of this study will be shared with Japanese workers who are engaged in improving conditions of children in public orphanages in Phnom Penh, to assist them in their work..