Embargo Period


Degree Name

MA in Sustainable Development

First Advisor

Udi Butler


This paper examines the origins, traditions, reasons behind rapid numbers expansion, and violent tendencies of organized groups of young football fans called Ultras. It also sheds the light on Al Raja Ultra groups, the first Moroccan Ultras groups and the most violent who started emerging in Casablanca in 2005, and since then thrived and diversified, not only in Casablanca but in Morocco as a whole. It’s unknown where the culture was derived from due to lack of literature on this matter but speculated to be a mimicking of neighboring countries such as Spain, and Tunisia where this phenomenon has been more prevalent. Ultras groups are the most loyal fans to Moroccan football clubs that created an entire culture surrounding teams of allegiance, and soccer in general.

This paper was initially proposed to evaluate the Ultras activism against a ban that has been instituted against them. Yet, the research uncovered an unsolved problem of Ultras rioting even after the ban was lifted, indicating urgency to understand The Moroccan Ultras culture. Therefore, the research has been repurposed to tend to the violence problem. The back and forth battles amongst Ultra factions, and between Ultras and security forces has been leaving a trail of loses between lives and public-private properties. Through discourse analysis, this paper is going to attempt to present the Ultras perspective of rioting events and identify key themes to their involvement of such actions.

It concludes with; if the Moroccan regulating bodies and security forces keep the lazy politics top down approach and do not take an inclusive approach to try and solve the issue of rioting, they’re risking further radicalization of the Ultras that might evolve into a much larger problem.


Social Welfare | Sports Studies | Terrorism Studies