Home Institution

University of California Berkeley

Publication Date

Spring 2013

Program Name

Tanzania: Wildlife Conservation and Political Ecology


This study examines the protein deficiency in Tanzania from a livelihood, decision based perspective, by looking at household decisions concerning meat protein consumption and production, in the Bangatan village area. More specifically it examines decisions regarding selling livestock rather than consuming it, the purpose of this cash generation, and globalization’s effects on these livelihood decisions. Predictions included: 1) no correlation or possibly a negative correlation between amount of livestock owned and meat protein consumed 2) families with more cash wealth eat more meat and 3) globalization has effected livelihood decisions regarding the direction of cash over the last 10 years by increasing cash demand, expanding the product market, and altering family priorities. The study involved nonrandom, semi-structured interviews with 30 different households (n=30) (20 of which were previous homestay families) and 3 key informant interviews, a local butcher, a local veterinarian, and the health clinic, in the Bangatan village area near the base of Mt. Meru, from April 5th to April 19th, 2013. The study found that meat consumption is more correlated to wealth (correlation coefficient= 0.276) than household livestock numbers (correlation coefficient= 0.079), although neither have a strong correlation. Families view livestock as business (not food sources) and most commonly use the cash generated from livestock for school fees, followed by household basics, followed by livestock restocking and care. There was also a lack of knowledge regarding protein and nutritional benefits of meat protein. Lastly, the said direction of cash from household livestock business (cash towards school fees) was representative of families’ priorities based on a random priority ranking list that the families completed (10 most important, 1 least important). When analyzing averages, school was number one (9.2), followed by electricity and plumbing (7.4), followed by food and nutrition (7.3) (n=10; range=1-10). Tanzania’s solutions for protein-energy deficiency must incorporate several livelihood factors, including: nutritional education, income, availability, money-spending behaviors and patterns, and changes in priorities.


Agricultural and Resource Economics | Agriculture | International and Community Nutrition | Nutrition