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Tufts University

Publication Date

Fall 12-1-2014

Program Name

Nepal: Tibetan and Himalayan Peoples


This paper focuses on the concept and treatment of “enemy” in Tibetan society. Drawing on interdisciplinary research theories and methodologies, the aim of this paper is accomplished in four progressive parts. First, it identifies the psychological processes and biases that propel “enemy image making,” a sociological concept. Second, it identifies Tibetan Buddhist teachings that may function as tools for combating these psychological phenomena. Third, it investigates how these teachings have been embodied by the Tibetan culture and internalized by the Tibetan people in exile to discern whether these “dharmic tools” have proven efficient. These sections will largely draw upon secondary sources as well as interviews conducted in three distinct living environments for Tibetan refugees across India and Nepal. The fourth, and final aim of this paper, is to place the Sino-Tibetan issue in a world context and extrapolate what universal lessons one can learn about human compassion, patience, tolerance, and forgiveness when discussing leadership and reconciliation.


Applied Behavior Analysis | Asian Studies | Peace and Conflict Studies | Personality and Social Contexts | Social Welfare


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