Home Institution

Georgetown University

Publication Date

Fall 2017

Program Name

Rwanda: Post-Genocide Restoration and Peacebuilding


Education has the ability to cultivate a Culture of Peace or Violence. In Rwanda, pre-1994 formal education became a tool for inciting violence by presenting a discriminatory and identity-based view of history. In the 23 years since the genocide, the Rwandan government has propagated education that promotes national unity and decreases division amongst students. The 2015 national competence-based curriculum (CBC), which incorporates the holistic idea of Education for a Culture of Peace (ECOP), is one pertinent example. This study addresses: (1) the historical narrative portrayed in the secondary-level national curriculum and how it is taught, and (2) the opportunities and challenges to cultivating a Culture of Peace in secondary-level Rwandan history students. Data collection in this study occurred first through the creation of a unique framework for ECOP based on existing literature and assessment of the curriculum against its indicators. Second was a case study of one public and one private secondary school in Kigali, which included: interviews with NGO and government stakeholders in CBC development, teachers, and school administrators; focus groups with students and educators; and class observation. It was found that ECOP content and pedagogy are widely prevalent in the CBC, however their implementation is severely hindered. In large part that is due to insufficient resources and teacher training. This study provides recommendations based on these findings.


African Languages and Societies | African Studies | Civic and Community Engagement | Education | Educational Assessment, Evaluation, and Research | Educational Sociology | Politics and Social Change | Race and Ethnicity | Secondary Education


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