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Texas Christian University

Publication Date

Spring 2019

Program Name

Spain: Policy, Law, and Regional Autonomy in Europe


When discussing the issue of political autonomy, the usual topics that are taken into consideration are based around human rights, language, culture, society or economics. Those are the most commonly discussed for good reason, as they are important for the rights and freedoms of a community itself. However, this research paper aims to investigate further into the discussion of the environmental effects of political autonomy in Spain, specifically in the matter of autonomous competencies for waterway and air management. Therefore, in order to test such a hypothesis, this study will use the Basque Country of Spain as the subject, and the policies enacted or suggested by the European Union as gauges as to whether or not the autonomous community is meeting, or possibly even exceeding, the standards set internationally in comparison to Spain as a whole. Historical context and the basis for this study is based primarily on literature review, while arguments for whether or not the Basque Country is effectively implementing environmental policies in relation to waterways and the air were collected via interviews from field professionals in the subjects of European Union policies, environmental research, protection and sustainability. After the collection and comparison of different literature and the statements of said professionals, the conclusion reached was that the Basque Country is, in fact, exceeding the expectations of Spain and meeting those of the European Union, and has plans to continue to do so in the future.


Climate | Environmental Indicators and Impact Assessment | Environmental Law | Environmental Policy | Environmental Sciences | Environmental Studies | European Languages and Societies | International Relations | Public Policy | Sustainability


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