Home Institution

Harvard University

Publication Date

Spring 2006

Program Name

Tanzania-Zanzibar: Coastal Ecology and Natural Resource Management


The economic, social, and environmental impacts of salt production were studied on the eastern coast of Pemba Island. Solar salt production is associated with the clear cutting of mangrove forests, which are significant as soil stabilizers, animal habitats, and as an economic resource. An environmental assessment of this industry is necessary to determine whether the socio-economic gains from salt production justify the environmental costs. Interviews with owners, employees, and day laborers from 20 salt farms were conducted to assess the general sustainability of the industry. The average annual owner income was determined to be approximately 570 000 Tsh, while employees and day laborers, usually paid in salt, earned the monetary equivalent of 245 000 Tsh and 70 000 Tsh, respectively. Field visits to salt farms were done study the surrounding mangroves and measure salinity, which was found to be 0 Be at the farms. Mangrove transects were studied in both salt farm and non-salt farm areas to determine species diversity, distribution, and average height. Avicennia marina, Ceriops tagal, and Rhizophora mucronata were present in all transects through salt farm and non-salt areas. Suggestions for improving salt production and quality while minimizing adverse environmental effects were recommended.


Agricultural and Resource Economics | Natural Resource Economics | Natural Resources Management and Policy

Related Files ISP_TZZ_S06_Wolchok_appendix4.xls (66 kB)
Appendix 4


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