Home Institution

Colorado University Boulder

Publication Date

Spring 2022

Program Name

Portugal: Sustainability and Environmental Justice


In the wake of multiple crises, such as climate change and international conflict, there is increased urgency to ensure a stable food system. Additionally, changing priorities of citizens have fostered the desire for sustainable production of food. One innovative method of food production is regenerative agriculture and in this practice the main goals are to increase system resilience, improve soil and sequester carbon. This is done through practices such as no tilling, cover and intercropping, and incorporation of livestock into crop fields. Although great in theory, these practices go against traditional agricultural practices and therefore the policy currently in place must shift in order to foster an environment where farmers are supported to facilitate the transformation of their land. This paper analyzes the most current reform of the Common Agricultural Policy in the European Union in comparison to the most recent Farm Bill reform in the United States in order to analyze if those policies are being transformed in a way that will help progress regenerative agriculture. As well as a literature review surrounding the policies and farmer sentiments, information has been collected as to how policy impacts farmers’ actions. Additionally, a direct analysis of the policy changes has been performed in order to see how these reforms will impact the food system as a whole. Through this analysis and informational interviews with farmers and a member of the Regenerative Revolution, it is clear that policy has been a historic barrier to a sustainable agricultural landscape, yet the reforms are an essential starting point to create support for farmers looking to alter their traditional practices. Despite the progress made, it is evident that both the CAP and the Farm Bill require significant improvement is necessary in order to offer genuine support for those who need it.


Agribusiness | Agricultural and Resource Economics | Agricultural Science | Agriculture | Agronomy and Crop Sciences | Food Security | Policy Design, Analysis, and Evaluation | Soil Science


Article Location