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Whittier College

Publication Date

Spring 2022

Program Name

Switzerland: International Studies and Multilateral Diplomacy


The purpose of this paper is to examine current international environmental policy shortcomings regarding multinational accountability, explore future legally binding options, and offer a resolution towards effective accountability mechanisms. To do so, it uses a two-part methodology composed of a comprehensive engagement with existing secondary sources from the academic literature and four interviews with experts in the field. The paper builds out considerations in seven key areas for normative consideration regarding the future of legally binding environmental policy. These considerations are hard law considerations in: International Law, International Human rights law, International Humanitarian Law, and International Environmental Law and procedural options through domestic, regional, and international accountability mechanisms. It concludes that through integration and harmonization of hard law policies in all four legal regimes and an employment of procedural enforcement through exhaustion of local remedies that includes both home and host binding policies that Multinational Corporations will face legal accountability through effective means.


Environmental Law | Environmental Policy | Environmental Studies | Human Rights Law | International Law | International Relations


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