Home Institution

University of Notre Dame

Publication Date

Spring 2022

Program Name

Morocco: Multiculturalism and Human Rights


Because of the presence of both legal and cultural discrimination in Morocco, the Moroccan queer community operates largely in secret and is unable to occupy public space. Additionally, the patriarchal structure of Moroccan society creates a culture of toxic masculinity that limits queer expression. This paper examines how queer Moroccans operate in the face of this discrimination. It also explores the extent to which alternative spaces, or spaces that subvert the norms and practices of mainstream society, contribute to the creation of LGBTQ+ social networks. Alternative spaces can be physical spaces—such as bars, cafes, and live music venues—or virtual spaces—such as websites and social media applications. This scholarly work examines whether these alternative spaces allow for a relatively greater level of queer expression, whether through nonconventional aesthetic presentation or the facilitation of queer discourse. Finally, it seeks to discover the importance of LGBTQ+ social networks in providing queer Moroccans with a sense of belonging in Morocco.


African Studies | Civic and Community Engagement | Gender and Sexuality | Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Studies | Politics and Social Change

Article Location