Publication Date


Degree Name

Master of Arts in Teaching (MAT)

First Advisor

Raymond Clark

Second Advisor

Phil Stantial


This handbook contains 50 operations for use in the ESL classroom. An operation describes a process or procedure for doing something, such as opening a bank accountant or using a cassette recorder. The meaning of the language is made clear by the action, and the action reinforces the language. Operations are especially useful for teaching and practicing verb tenses, although they can also be used when working with stress and intonation patterns, vocabulary building, locative phrases, cultural information, and skill development. Operations are activity-oriented, and because the students are physically responding to words, the language has concrete meaning. The handbook should be used as a supplement to regular classroom activities.


Bilingual, Multilingual, and Multicultural Education | Curriculum and Instruction | Teacher Education and Professional Development