Publication Date


Degree Name

Master of Arts in Teaching (MAT)

First Advisor

Claire Stanley


The purpose of this project was to explore ways to answer the question, “What did the students learned and how do I know?” in and advanced-level English class. Counseling-Learning/ Community Language Learning’s SARD paradigm (Security, Attention, Assertion, Retention, Reflection, and Discrimination) was used as the framework for lesson planning and reflection after each lesson.

Data was collected in a teaching journal using the standard action research methods of lesson planning, teaching the lesson, reflecting on it, and making a new plan based on the reflections.

It was found that using the SARD paradigm was and effective way to observe that each student was learning and what each student was learning.


Curriculum and Instruction | First and Second Language Acquisition | Social and Philosophical Foundations of Education