Publication Date


Degree Name

Master of Arts in Teaching (MAT)

First Advisor

Alvino Fantini


Techniques for teaching reading and writing to ESL learners "include ones derived from both L1 literacy methods and L2 oral methods. In both categories, some methods, and consequently some techniques, utilize cultural materials from outside the classroom and the learners' culture. Others use materials with no overt cultural content. Still other methods use learner-created materials. These differing methods are explored for their potential in teaching both literacy and culture. The culture- and literacy- learning experience of one Asian-refugee ESL class: multi-level, multi-age, multi-ethnic, and rural, is described. Learners wrote their own reading materials; largely based on pictures from Asian and U.S. cultures. The process and results are described, as well as other methods used to facilitate reading, writing, and cultural interaction in this class. Culture and literacy techniques are suggested for refugee and immigrant ESL classes of varying composition.


Bilingual, Multilingual, and Multicultural Education | Curriculum and Instruction | Education | Other Teacher Education and Professional Development